Difference between revisions of "Nordyke v. King"

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== Background ==
+
== Introduction ==
In August 1999, Alameda County passed an ordinance making illegal the possession of firearms on County property. In pertinent part, the Ordinance reads: “Every person who brings onto or possesses on county property a firearm, loaded or unloaded, or ammunition for a firearm is guilty of a misdemeanor.” [http://municipalcodes.lexisnexis.com/codes/alamedagen/_DATA/TITLE09/Chapter_9_12_FIREARMS_AND_DANG.html#11 Alameda County, Cal., Ordinance § 9.12.120(b)]. The Ordinance would forbid the presence of firearms at gun shows held at the Fairgrounds. As a practical matter, the Ordinance makes it unlikely that a gun show could profitably be held there.
+
  
Russ and Sally Nordyke who own the TS Trade Show and various gun rights supporters represented by [http://www.dklawoffice.com/ Don Kilmer] filed suit against the County of Alameda alleging that Alameda's Ordinance was preempted by state law and violated various of their First Amendment rights.
+
''Nordyke v. King'' was challenging an effective ban on gun shows on county property by the county of Alameda.
  
== Preliminary Injuction ==
+
== Status ==
 +
PACER case number [https://ecf.ca9.uscourts.gov/cmecf/servlet/TransportRoom?servlet=CaseSummary.jsp&caseNum=07-15763&incOrigDkt=Y&incDktEntries=Y 07-15763] filed in [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/ U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit] (San Francisco).
  
The Nordykes moved for a temporary injunction to allow their shows to go on at the District Court level in front of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Jenkins Judge Jenkins]. Jenkins sua sponte introduced the Second Amendment, treated the motion for temporary injunction as one for a permanent injunction and then denied that motion. The Nordykes filed an interlocutory appeal of that denial.
+
===Nordyke VI===
 +
[http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16141834160372842342 Nordyke v. King, 681 F. 3d 1041 - Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit 2012]
 +
{| border="1"
 +
!colspan="1" bgcolor="#F2ECCE" |NORDYKE OPINION
 +
|- align="center"
 +
|bgcolor="yellow"|January 8th, 2013: After 12 years of litigation, Nordyke v. King is finally over. The ruling did not impact the 2A right.  Gun shows may be held on County property provided that the Nordykes' comply with the ordinance by tethering guns to tables like other merchandise at retail stores. The Nordykes' were not awarded prevailing party status by the court and despite petitioning the Supreme Court, fees and costs are not recoverable.
 +
|}
  
== Question Certified to the California Supreme Court ==
+
*November 28, 2011: Chief Judge KOZINSKI issues an [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/attachment.php?attachmentid=124497&d=1322531368 order] to rehear the case en banc:
 +
''Upon the vote of a majority of nonrecused active judges, it is ordered that
 +
this case be reheard en banc pursuant to Circuit Rule 35-3. The three-judge panel
 +
opinion shall not be cited as precedent by or to any court of the Ninth Circuit.
 +
Judge Rawlinson did not participate in the deliberations or vote in this case.
 +
''
 +
 
 +
* July 18, 2011, Appellants filed a Leave to file Reply Brief in Support of Rehearing for En Banc
 +
 
 +
* July 11, 2011, Appellees filed a response to Combo PFR Panel and En Banc rehearing.
 +
 
 +
* June 14, 2011 [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=444689 9th Circuit Orders Alameda County to file Brief in ''Nordyke v. King'']
 +
 +
* May 23, 2011 [http://www.hoffmang.com/firearms/Nordyke-v-King/179-1-Petition-for-En-Banc-Review.pdf Request for rehearing and rehearing en banc]
 +
 
 +
===Nordyke V===
 +
 
 +
* [http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16860306062835348173 Nordyke v. King, 644 F. 3d 776 - Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit 2011]
 +
 
 +
* May 2, 2011 - Nordyke V Opinion is [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2011/05/02/07-15763.pdf released].  Nordyke loses and is sent back to district court to argue the second amendment claim.  If no other action is taken, this will reset the timeline approximately another two years.
 +
 
 +
* October 19, 2010 - Oral Arguments heard at 1:30 PM at the James M. Browning Courthouse in San Francisco. Recording of the arguments [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/media/view_subpage.php?pk_id=0000006368 here].
 +
 
 +
* September 13, 2010 [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/attachment.php?attachmentid=68665&d=1284458011 Don filed a copy 28j letter calling the courts attention to the ''Anderson v. City of Hermosa Beach'' 1A case]
 +
 
 +
* September 9, 2010 Oral arguments scheduled for October 19, 2010 at 1:30 PM at the James M. Browning Courthouse in San Francisco.
 +
 
 +
* August 18, 2010 - [http://www.calgunlaws.com/index.php/current-litigation/53-court-filings/907-multiple-legal-briefs-filed-in-nordyke-v-alameda-ninth-circuit-case-may-determine-the-standard-of-review-for-scrutinizing-laws-facing-second-amendment-challenges.html Multiple legal briefs filed in ''Nordyke v King'' ]
 +
 +
* Amicus Brief of the CRPA Foundation;
 +
* Amicus Brief of the NRA;
 +
* Amicus Brief of the Calguns Foundation;
 +
* Brief on behalf of the Nordykes;
 +
* Amicus Brief of LCAV;
 +
* Amicus Brief of SAF;
 +
* Amicus Brief of Gun Owners of California, Inc.;
 +
* Brief on behalf of the County of Alameda
 +
* Amicus Brief of Brady Center
 +
 
 +
* August 17, 2010 - CRPAF files [http://www.calgunlaws.com/images/stories/Docs/Nordyke/1crpa.pdf a brief]. Calgunlaws.com (C.D. Michel) would appreciate it if you would [http://www.calgunlaws.com/index.php/register.html register] there so you may receive updates in the future.
 +
 
 +
* July 13, 2010 - Attorney Don Kilmer (representing Nordykes) filed a [http://www.hoffmang.com/firearms/Nordyke-v-King/Motion-for-Supp-Brief-Filed-2010-07-13.pdf motion for supplemental briefing] to the 3-judge panel.
 +
 
 +
===Nordyke IV - VACATED - ===
 +
 
 +
* [http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=4652598510156282452 Nordyke v. King, 611 F. 3d 1015 - Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit 2010 ]  Nordyke IV - VACATED
 +
 
 +
* July 12, 2010 - 9th Circuit en banc panel files [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2010/07/12/07-15763.pdf an order] stating
 +
The panel opinion in Nordyke v. King, 563 F.3d 439 (9th Cir. 2009), is
 +
vacated and the case is remanded to that panel for further consideration
 +
in light of McDonald v. City of Chicago, No. 08-1521, slip op. (U.S.
 +
June 28, 2010).
 +
 
 +
* July 9, 2010 - Don Kilmer files a [http://www.hoffmang.com/firearms/Nordyke-v-King/Nordyke-28j-post-McDonald.pdf "28J"] letter with 9th Circuit asking that the McDonald decision be considered in the en banc proceeding.
 +
 
 +
* September 24, 2009 - The ''en banc'' panel heard oral arguments in the morning. Later in the afternoon, the panel vacated the submission, effectively deferring to SCOTUS for a resolution of [http://wiki.calgunsfoundation.org/index.php/McDonald_v._Chicago ''McDonald v. City of Chicago''].
 +
 
 +
* September 14,2009 - The ''en banc'' panel has been [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/calendaring/2009/09/14/sf92109eb.pdf set]: Chief Judge Kozinski, Pregerson, Reinhardt, O'Scannlain, Rymer, Hawkins, Graber, Gould, Tallman, M. Smith, Ikuta.
 +
 
 +
* August 21, 2009 - Oral argument set for 10:00 am Thursday, September 24, in Courtroom One at the James R. Browning Courthouse, located at 95 Seventh Street in San Francisco, California.
 +
 
 +
* July 29, 2009 - Judge Kozinski filed an [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2009/07/29/0715763ebo.pdf order] that the case will be heard en banc.  Oral argument to be the week of September 21, 2009. Further status from the 9th Circuit at [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/enbanc/view.php?pk_id=0000000037 this link].
 +
 
 +
* June 8, 2009 - Alameda files its en banc [http://www.hoffmang.com/firearms/Nordyke-v-King/Alameda-en-banc-Brief-2009-06-08.pdf brief].
 +
 
 +
*June 6, 2009 - The Nordykes have [http://www.hoffmang.com/firearms/Nordyke-v-King/EN-BANC-BRIEF-w-APP-2009-06-08.pdf filed their en banc brief] and a [http://www.hoffmang.com/firearms/Nordyke-v-King/APPELLANT-28(J)-LTR-2009-06-08.pdf 28(j) letter] discussing the 7th Circuit's ruling in NRA & McDonald v. Chicago.
 +
 
 +
*May 18, 2009 - Late the afternoon of Monday May 18th, the 9th Circuit informed  all parties in Nordyke that a judge of the 9th Circuit has has  called for a vote to determine whether the case will be reheard  en banc.
 +
 
 +
===Nordyke IV===
 +
 
 +
*[http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=5678782307901693880 Nordyke v. King, 563 F. 3d 439 (9th Cir. 2009) (“Nordyke IV”)]
 +
 
 +
===Nordyke III===
 +
 
 +
*[http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=15142229077642329656& Nordyke v. King, 319 F.3d 1185, 1190 (9th Cir. 2003) (“Nordyke III”)]
 +
 
 +
===Nordyke II===
 +
 
 +
* [http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=15739810071406599158 Nordyke v.King, 44 P.3d 133, 138 (Cal. 2002) (“Nordyke II”)]
 +
 
 +
===Nordyke I===
 +
 
 +
* [http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=3438675193782582092 Nordyke v. King, 229 F. 3d 1266  (9th Cir. 2000 (“Nordyke I”)]
 +
 
 +
== Calguns discussions ==
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?p=7577326&posted=1#post7577326 Nordyke v. King update: 9th Circuit to Rehear En Banc (Order Nov 28 2011)]
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?p=7104928 Nordyke: Request for Rehearing and Rehearing En Banc] May, 2011
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=427991 NORDYKE OPINED MAY 2] May, 2011
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=354321 Nordyke III Audio is released:] October, 2010
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=354241 NORDYKE III Orals.] October, 2010
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=340719 Could Anderson v. Hermosa Beach (1A Tattoo shop victory) be relevant to Nordyke?] September, 2010
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=340816 Oral arguments scheduled in Nordyke] September, 2010
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=333268 MORE NORDYKE BRIEFS FILED] August, 2010
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=333298 CGF Nordyke Amicus Brief - Ban limits supply - has no crime effect] August, 2010
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=320837 Nordyke: En Banc Dismissed, Remanded to Panel] July, 2010
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=225435 BREAKING Nordyke: Order entered] September, 2009
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=215071 Nordyke: en banc Oral Arguments 9/24 10AM] August, 2009
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=207630 Volokh: Nordyke goes en banc] July, 2009
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=185619 Nordyke: 9th Request en banc Briefing] May, 2009
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=175296 Nordyke is out!] April, 2009
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=145478 Oral Arguments in landmark Nordyke v. King case - 100+ cal-gunners in attendance.] January, 2009
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=124203 Nordyke: Reply and Amicus Briefs] October, 2008
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=120437 Nordyke: 2A/14A Briefs are filed] September, 2008
 +
* [http://www.calguns.net/calgunforum/showthread.php?t=111557 Nordyke: Important breaking news - same panel remains] July, 2008
 +
 
 +
== Commentary and Analysis ==
 +
 
 +
*Nov 28, 2011 - [http://www.mercurynews.com/crime-courts/ci_19427867? 9th Circuit agrees to rehear long-running Alameda County gun rights case] by Howard Mintz, MercuryNews.com
 +
 
 +
*May 3, 2011 - [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/05/02/BASI1JAQ2A.DTL&tsp=1 Alameda County gun show backers suffer setback] by Bob Egelko, Chronicle Staff Writer, SFGate.com
 +
 
 +
*May 2, 2011 - [http://reason.com/blog/2011/05/02/the-legal-meaning-of-the-secon The Legal Meaning of the Second Amendment Further Clarified in Nordyke v. King] by Brian Doherty, ''Reason.com Online Blog''
 +
 
 +
*May 2, 2011 - [http://www.law.com/jsp/ca/PubArticleCA.jsp?id=1202492744491 Circuit Won't Slam Door on Gun Ban Suit] by Ginny LaRoe, ''The Recorder, Law.com''
 +
 
 +
*September 22, 2010 - [http://www.examiner.com/la-in-los-angeles/october-19th-nordyke-v-king-gun-rights-case-to-be-heard October 19th - Nordyke v King gun rights case to be heard.] by Charles Nichols, ''LA History Examiner''
 +
 
 +
*August 19, 2010 - [http://www.examiner.com/gun-rights-in-seattle/saf-files-amicus-nordyke-case-10-year-olds-and-guns SAF files amicus in Nordyke case;] by Dave Workman, ''Seattle Gun Rights Examiner''
 +
 
 +
*July 20, 2010 - [http://www.examiner.com/x-30407-LA-AntiEstablishment-Examiner~y2010m7d20-The-next-gun-rights-battle-is-a-turkey-shoot The next gun rights battle is a turkey shoot] by Charles Nichols, ''LA Anti-Establishment Examiner''
 +
 
 +
== Background ==
 +
 
 +
In August 1999, Alameda County passed an ordinance making illegal the possession of firearms on County property. In pertinent part, the Ordinance reads: “Every person who brings onto or possesses on county property a firearm, loaded or unloaded, or ammunition for a firearm is guilty of a misdemeanor.” [http://municipalcodes.lexisnexis.com/codes/alamedagen/_DATA/TITLE09/Chapter_9_12_FIREARMS_AND_DANG.html#11 Alameda County, Cal., Ordinance § 9.12.120(b)]. The Ordinance would forbid the presence of firearms at gun shows held at the Fairgrounds. As a practical matter, the Ordinance makes it unlikely that a gun show could profitably be held there.
  
The Ninth Circuit Court of appeals panel consisting of [http://www.fjc.gov/servlet/tGetInfo?jid=19 Alarcón], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarmuid_Fionntain_O'Scannlain O’Scannlain] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_M._Gould Gould] certified the preemption question to the California Supreme Court. In April 2002, the California Supreme Court ruled in [http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/archive/S091549.PDF Nordyke v. King 44 P.3d 133, 138 (Cal. 2002)] that state law did not preempt cities and counties from banning gun shows on their property.
+
Russ and Sallie Nordyke who own the TS Trade Show and various gun rights supporters represented by [http://www.dklawoffice.com/ Don Kilmer] filed suit against the County of Alameda alleging that Alameda's Ordinance was preempted by state law and violated various of their First Amendment rights.
  
== Appeal after the Certified Question ==
+
==Nordyke v. King Historical Notes==
 +
This case has a <u>long</u> and convoluted history.
  
The Ninth Circuit panel then turned to the merits of the Nordyke's First and Second Amendment claims. The panel [http://www.ca9.uscourts.gov/ca9/newopinions.nsf/FCCA5E5E7F2EBF2088256CD1005B853B/$file/9917551.pdf?openelement held] that on motion for permanent injunction, the Nordykes did not prevail in their first amendment claims. The court also rejected Nordyke's Second Amendment claims citing binding precedent from Hickman that only states have standing to bring Second Amendment claims. However, the panel strongly suggested (and Gould's concurrence stated plainly) that it did not believe that the previous Second Amendment rulings in [http://www.guncite.com/court/fed/81f3d98.html ''Hickman''] and [http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/gunlawsuits/silvlckyr120502opn.pdf ''Silveira''] were good law. The case returned to Judge Jenkins.
+
''The case was filed in 1999. It has been heard by the Ninth Circuit''
 +
''[four] times, including en banc after a sua sponte call for a vote,''
 +
''and had even passed through the California Supreme Court on a''
 +
''certified question. Following the panel’s next decision, it could''
 +
''well return before the en banc court, and perhaps reach the Supreme''
 +
''Court.''<ref name="Pena v. Cid Doc 27">Joint Status Report, [http://www.archive.org/download/gov.uscourts.caed.191444/gov.uscourts.caed.191444.27.0.pdf Document 27] filed in ''Pena v. Cid''</ref>
  
== District Court Ruling on the Merits ==
+
''
  
At the district court the Nordykes recast their argument from a facial challenge under the First Amendment to an as applied challenge. In April of 2007, Judge Jenkins [http://www.hoffmang.com/firearms/Nordyke-v-King/Nordyke-v-King-Summary_Judgement_Order-2007-04-17.pdf ruled against] the Nordykes holding that the ordinance was not specifically targeted at speech and therefor passed rational basis scrutiny.
+
For a concise history lesson on this case, please read [http://www.calgunlaws.com/index.php/current-litigation/82-cases-litigation/905-crpa-foundation-files-amicus-brief-in-ninth-circuit-case-.html here] or [http://www.crpa.org/_e/page/1573/mr08_17_10.htm here]
  
== Appeal of the Merits Ruling ==
+
[http://wiki.calgunsfoundation.org/index.php?title=Nordyke_v._King_Historical_Notes Old Nordyke v. King Wiki Historical Notes]
  
The Nordykes have appealed the ruling of the District Court. Judge Jenkins has since left the Federal Courts for a state appellate appointment. The Nordykes and Alameda County have filed a motion for supplemental briefing on the Second Amendment questions in light of Heller. On July 18th it became clear that the original panel of Alarcón, O’Scannlain and Gould have retained jurisdiction in the case. Briefing of the Second Amendment issues is due September 11, 2008 and reply briefs from both sides are due October 2, 2008. Oral argument has not been scheduled yet.
+
== Notes ==
 +
<small>
 +
<references/>
 +
</small>
 +
==External links==
 +
*[http://www.chicagoguncase.com/ ChicagoGunCase] provides info about a closely-related case in the Seventh Circuit.
 +
*[http://homepages.nyu.edu/~jmm257/mvc.html Maloney v. Rice: the Nunchaku Case] is a closely related case in the Second Circuit.

Latest revision as of 18:05, 8 January 2013

Introduction

Nordyke v. King was challenging an effective ban on gun shows on county property by the county of Alameda.

Status

PACER case number 07-15763 filed in U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (San Francisco).

Nordyke VI

Nordyke v. King, 681 F. 3d 1041 - Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit 2012

NORDYKE OPINION
January 8th, 2013: After 12 years of litigation, Nordyke v. King is finally over. The ruling did not impact the 2A right. Gun shows may be held on County property provided that the Nordykes' comply with the ordinance by tethering guns to tables like other merchandise at retail stores. The Nordykes' were not awarded prevailing party status by the court and despite petitioning the Supreme Court, fees and costs are not recoverable.
  • November 28, 2011: Chief Judge KOZINSKI issues an order to rehear the case en banc:
Upon the vote of a majority of nonrecused active judges, it is ordered that
this case be reheard en banc pursuant to Circuit Rule 35-3. The three-judge panel
opinion shall not be cited as precedent by or to any court of the Ninth Circuit.
Judge Rawlinson did not participate in the deliberations or vote in this case.

  • July 18, 2011, Appellants filed a Leave to file Reply Brief in Support of Rehearing for En Banc
  • July 11, 2011, Appellees filed a response to Combo PFR Panel and En Banc rehearing.

Nordyke V

  • May 2, 2011 - Nordyke V Opinion is released. Nordyke loses and is sent back to district court to argue the second amendment claim. If no other action is taken, this will reset the timeline approximately another two years.
  • October 19, 2010 - Oral Arguments heard at 1:30 PM at the James M. Browning Courthouse in San Francisco. Recording of the arguments here.
  • September 9, 2010 Oral arguments scheduled for October 19, 2010 at 1:30 PM at the James M. Browning Courthouse in San Francisco.
* Amicus Brief of the CRPA Foundation;
* Amicus Brief of the NRA;
* Amicus Brief of the Calguns Foundation;
* Brief on behalf of the Nordykes;
* Amicus Brief of LCAV;
* Amicus Brief of SAF;
* Amicus Brief of Gun Owners of California, Inc.;
* Brief on behalf of the County of Alameda
* Amicus Brief of Brady Center
  • August 17, 2010 - CRPAF files a brief. Calgunlaws.com (C.D. Michel) would appreciate it if you would register there so you may receive updates in the future.

Nordyke IV - VACATED -

  • July 12, 2010 - 9th Circuit en banc panel files an order stating
The panel opinion in Nordyke v. King, 563 F.3d 439 (9th Cir. 2009), is 
vacated and the case is remanded to that panel for further consideration
in light of McDonald v. City of Chicago, No. 08-1521, slip op. (U.S.
June 28, 2010).
  • July 9, 2010 - Don Kilmer files a "28J" letter with 9th Circuit asking that the McDonald decision be considered in the en banc proceeding.
  • September 24, 2009 - The en banc panel heard oral arguments in the morning. Later in the afternoon, the panel vacated the submission, effectively deferring to SCOTUS for a resolution of McDonald v. City of Chicago.
  • September 14,2009 - The en banc panel has been set: Chief Judge Kozinski, Pregerson, Reinhardt, O'Scannlain, Rymer, Hawkins, Graber, Gould, Tallman, M. Smith, Ikuta.
  • August 21, 2009 - Oral argument set for 10:00 am Thursday, September 24, in Courtroom One at the James R. Browning Courthouse, located at 95 Seventh Street in San Francisco, California.
  • July 29, 2009 - Judge Kozinski filed an order that the case will be heard en banc. Oral argument to be the week of September 21, 2009. Further status from the 9th Circuit at this link.
  • June 8, 2009 - Alameda files its en banc brief.
  • May 18, 2009 - Late the afternoon of Monday May 18th, the 9th Circuit informed all parties in Nordyke that a judge of the 9th Circuit has has called for a vote to determine whether the case will be reheard en banc.

Nordyke IV

Nordyke III

Nordyke II

Nordyke I

Calguns discussions

Commentary and Analysis

Background

In August 1999, Alameda County passed an ordinance making illegal the possession of firearms on County property. In pertinent part, the Ordinance reads: “Every person who brings onto or possesses on county property a firearm, loaded or unloaded, or ammunition for a firearm is guilty of a misdemeanor.” Alameda County, Cal., Ordinance § 9.12.120(b). The Ordinance would forbid the presence of firearms at gun shows held at the Fairgrounds. As a practical matter, the Ordinance makes it unlikely that a gun show could profitably be held there.

Russ and Sallie Nordyke who own the TS Trade Show and various gun rights supporters represented by Don Kilmer filed suit against the County of Alameda alleging that Alameda's Ordinance was preempted by state law and violated various of their First Amendment rights.

Nordyke v. King Historical Notes

This case has a long and convoluted history.

The case was filed in 1999. It has been heard by the Ninth Circuit
[four] times, including en banc after a sua sponte call for a vote,
and had even passed through the California Supreme Court on a
certified question. Following the panel’s next decision, it could
well return before the en banc court, and perhaps reach the Supreme
Court.<ref name="Pena v. Cid Doc 27">Joint Status Report, Document 27 filed in Pena v. Cid</ref>

For a concise history lesson on this case, please read here or here

Old Nordyke v. King Wiki Historical Notes

Notes

<references/>

External links